To gain the exact knowledge of our study, the study with in the class is insufficient for any subject. Therefore field study is must for any subject. The study of geology with in the class is incomplete education. Therefore field study for geology is most necessary things.
The main objectives of our field visit are as follows.
· To measure strike of bedding plane
· To measure the dip direction and dip amount of the bedding planes and joints
· To identify the rock type and its property.
· To understand the River morphology
· To estimate, where the bridge site should be selected?
· To be clear enough about joints, faults and folds.
· To Study the mass movement
· To realize the need of geological knowledge in the field of civil engineering.
Following are the methodology that was implemented.
2.2.1 Desk study: The geological map of the region given to us was thoroughly studied so that we could get an idea of the important rock types and other significant geological characters of the ambience. The guidance of teachers was carefully listened so that we could do better in the field. Important papers and documents were studied properly so that it would help in the field. So in overall we studied the theoretical portions first.
2.2.2 Field Study: It is the most important method of all. Here we studied each and every detail in the field that was necessary. Different places suitable for the geological study were selected and their location was determined by the map and the observation related to such structures were taken and copied such as physical appearances, orientation, geological structures. We followed teachers’ instructions and worked accordingly. All details were noted in the diary. The different rock types at various locations and their properties were noted down. The specimens were numbered and the location of the outcrop was marked in the map. Samples of each type of rocks were also collected. All the available information such as the changes in rock type or the structural characteristics of the outcrop seen was also recorded with the help of photographs and sketches along with text description. Various morphological structures of rivers were also studied there.
A geological hammer was used to test the hardness of rock in the field. It was performed by striking the tip of hammer and the surface of the rock whose hardness was to be determined. Hammer was used extraction of the sample.
§ Brunton Compass
iber glass tape
Long fiberglass tape measure have an open reel case on this long surveyor's tape helps us more easily rewind tape. Design keeps dirt from getting trapped inside case. Non-stretch fiberglass tape is durable and waterproof. It is longer than ordinary measure of length.we used it during RMR
Planner features at the rocky outcrops
The features preserved in rock, which are responsible to found the plane surface, are called planner features. Bedding plane generally follow the deposition plane.
ü BEDDING PLANE
In a quarry, a bedding is a term used for a structure occurring in granite and similar massive rocks that allows them to split in well-defined planes horizontally or parallel to the land surface.
ü FOLIATION PLANE
Foliation is usually formed by the preferred orientation of minerals within a rock. Foliation is any penetrative planar fabric present in rocks. Foliation is common to rocks affected by regional metamorphic compression typical of orogenic belts. Rocks exhibiting foliation include the typical metamorphic rock sequence of slate, phyllite, schist and gneiss.
Foliation in areas of shearing, and within the plane of thrust faults, can provide information on the transport direction or sense of movement on the thrust or shear. Generally, the acute intersection angle shows the direction of transport. Foliations typically bend or curve into a shear, which provides the same information, if it is of a scale which can be observed.
Joints form one of the most important types of discontinuity within rock masses, typically having no residual strength.
Attitudes of the geological Structures
Strike and dip refer to the orientation or attitude of a geologic feature. The strike of a stratum or planar feature is a line representing the intersection of that feature with the horizontal. Strike and dip are determined in the field with a compass and clinometer or combination known as a Brunton compass.
ü Dip direction :
It is the direction of the rock strata towards which it dips i.e. inclined and it always lies at right angle to the strike. Strike is the direction on sloping surface in which a horizontal line can be drawn.
ü Dip amount :
It is the maximum angle of inclination of the rock strata with the horizontal, and is measured in vertical plane.
2.2.3 Report Writing: Finally a field report was made on the basis of all the observations and findings which summarized all our activities performed at Malekhu. It also included all the geological information gathered at the various sites and locations we reached in the Malekhu area. Report gives all the information about the area we worked on.